Feng Gao, MD


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Professor of Medicine
Department / Division:
Medicine / Medicine - DHVI Faculty
3072B Msrb Ii
106 Research Dr.
Durham, NC 27710
Office Telephone:
(919) 668-6433
  • MD, Harbin Medical University (China), 1984
Research Interests:
Dr. Feng Gao is Professor of Medicine at Duke University and leader of the Laboratory of Molecular Virology at the Duke Human Vaccine Institute (DHVI). As such, he works with DHVI vaccine teams on immunogen and vector design. The Gao laboratory has a long-standing interest in elucidating the origins and evolution of human and simian inmmunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), and in studying HIV/SIV gene function and pathogenic mechanisms from the evolutionary perspective. These studies have led to new strategies to better understand HIV-1 viral biology, pathogenesis and drug resistance, and to design new AIDS vaccine candidates.
Representative Publications:
  • Bonsignori, M; Wiehe, K; Grimm, SK; Lynch, R; Yang, G; Kozink, DM; Perrin, F; Cooper, AJ; Hwang, KK; Chen, X; Liu, M; McKee, K; Parks, RJ; Eudailey, J; Wang, M; Clowse, M; Criscione-Schreiber, LG; Moody, MA; Ackerman, ME; Boyd, SD; Gao, F; Kelsoe, G; Verkoczy, L; Tomaras, GD; Liao, HX; Kepler, TB; Montefiori, DC; Mascola, JR; Haynes, BF. An autoreactive antibody from an SLE/HIV-1 individual broadly neutralizes HIV-1. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2014;124:1835-1843.  Abstract
  • Fera, D; Schmidt, AG; Haynes, BF; Gao, F; Liao, HX; Kepler, TB; Harrison, SC. Affinity maturation in an HIV broadly neutralizing B-cell lineage through reorientation of variable domains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 2014;111:10275-10280.  Abstract
  • Gao, F; Bonsignori, M; Liao, HX; Kumar, A; Xia, SM; Lu, X; Cai, F; Hwang, KK; Song, H; Zhou, T; Lynch, RM; Alam, SM; Moody, MA; Ferrari, G; Berrong, M; Kelsoe, G; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Montefiori, DC; Kamanga, G; Cohen, MS; Hraber, P; Kwong, PD; Korber, BT; Mascola, JR; Kepler, TB; Haynes, BF. Cooperation of B cell lineages in induction of HIV-1-broadly neutralizing antibodies. Cell. 2014;158:481-491.  
  • Gao, F; Bonsignori, M; Liao, HX; Kumar, A; Xia, SM; Lu, X; Cai, F; Hwang, KK; Song, H; Zhou, T; Lynch, RM; Alam, SM; Moody, MA; Ferrari, G; Berrong, M; Kelsoe, G; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Montefiori, DC; Kamanga, G; Cohen, MS; Hraber, P; Kwong, PD; Korber, BT; Mascola, JR; Kepler, TB; Haynes, BF. Cooperation of B cell lineages in induction of HIV-1-broadly neutralizing antibodies. Cell. 2014;158:481-491.  Abstract
  • Haynes, BF; Moody, MA; Alam, M; Bonsignori, M; Verkoczy, L; Ferrari, G; Gao, F; Tomaras, GD; Liao, HX; Kelsoe, G. Progress in HIV-1 vaccine development. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2014;134:3-11.  Abstract
  • Hraber, P; Korber, BT; Lapedes, AS; Bailer, RT; Seaman, MS; Gao, H; Greene, KM; McCutchan, F; Williamson, C; Kim, JH; Tovanabutra, S; Hahn, BH; Swanstrom, R; Thomson, MM; Gao, F; Harris, L; Giorgi, E; Hengartner, N; Bhattacharya, T; Mascola, JR; Montefiori, DC. Impact of clade, geography, and age of the epidemic on HIV-1 neutralization by antibodies. Journal of virology. 2014;88:12623-12643.  Abstract
  • Sanchez, AM; DeMarco, CT; Hora, B; Keinonen, S; Chen, Y; Brinkley, C; Stone, M; Tobler, L; Keating, S; Schito, M; Busch, MP; Gao, F; Denny, TN. Development of a contemporary globally diverse HIV viral panel by the EQAPOL program. Journal of Immunological Methods. 2014;409:117-130.  
  • Sanchez, AM; DeMarco, CT; Hora, B; Keinonen, S; Chen, Y; Brinkley, C; Stone, M; Tobler, L; Keating, S; Schito, M; Busch, MP; Gao, F; Denny, TN. Development of a contemporary globally diverse HIV viral panel by the EQAPOL program. Journal of Immunological Methods. 2014;409:117-130.  Abstract
  • Song, H; Hora, B; Bhattacharya, T; Goonetilleke, N; Liu, MK; Wiehe, K; Li, H; Iyer, SS; McMichael, AJ; Perelson, AS; Gao, F. Reversion and T cell escape mutations compensate the fitness loss of a CD8+ T cell escape mutant in their cognate transmitted/founder virus. PloS one. 2014;9:e102734.  Abstract
  • Xiang, Y; Liu, W; Chen, Y; Zhang, C; Su, W; Zhang, Y; Sun, J; Gao, F; Jiang, C. The variable loop 3 in the envelope glycoprotein is critical for the atypical coreceptor usage of an HIV-1 strain. PloS one. 2014;9:e98058.  Abstract
  • Fenton-May, AE; Dibben, O; Emmerich, T; Ding, H; Pfafferott, K; Aasa-Chapman, MM; Pellegrino, P; Williams, I; Cohen, MS; Gao, F; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Ochsenbauer, C; Kappes, JC; Borrow, P. Relative resistance of HIV-1 founder viruses to control by interferon-alpha. Retrovirology. 2013;10.  Abstract
  • Fouda, GG; Mahlokozera, T; Salazar-Gonzalez, JF; Salazar, MG; Learn, G; Kumar, SB; Dennison, SM; Russell, E; Rizzolo, K; Jaeger, F; Cai, F; Vandergrift, NA; Gao, F; Hahn, B; Shaw, GM; Ochsenbauer, C; Swanstrom, R; Meshnick, S; Mwapasa, V; Kalilani, L; Fiscus, S; Montefiori, D; Haynes, B; Kwiek, J; Alam, SM; Permar, SR. Postnatally-transmitted HIV-1 Envelope variants have similar neutralization-sensitivity and function to that of nontransmitted breast milk variants. Retrovirology. 2013;10:3.  Abstract
  • Gao, F; Bonsignori, M; Liao, H; Kumar, A; Xia, S; Cai, F; Lu, X; Kozink, DM; Kwong, P; Zhou, T; Lynch, R; Alam, SM; Ferrari, G; Kelsoe, G; Sandrasegaram, G; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Montefiori, DC; Kamanga, G; Cohen, M; Braber, P; Korber, BT; Mascola, JR; Kepler, TB; Haynes, BF. Multiple Pathways of HIV-1 Autologous Neutralizing Antibodies Cooperate to Drive CD4 Binding Site Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. A186-A186.  
  • Li, X; Fan, P; Jin, J; Su, W; An, D; Xu, L; Sun, S; Zhang, Y; Meng, X; Gao, F; Kong, W; Jiang, C. Establishment of cell lines with increased susceptibility to EV71/CA16 by stable overexpression of SCARB2. Virology Journal. 2013;10.  Abstract
  • Liao, HX; Lynch, R; Zhou, T; Gao, F; Alam, SM; Boyd, SD; Fire, AZ; Roskin, KM; Schramm, CA; Zhang, Z; Zhu, J; Shapiro, L; Mullikin, JC; Gnanakaran, S; Hraber, P; Wiehe, K; Kelsoe, G; Yang, G; Xia, SM; Montefiori, DC; Parks, R; Lloyd, KE; Scearce, RM; Soderberg, KA; Cohen, M; Kamanga, G; Louder, MK; Tran, LM; Chen, Y; Cai, F; Chen, S; Moquin, S; Du, X; Joyce, MG; Srivatsan, S; Zhang, B; Zheng, A; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Kepler, TB; Korber, BT; Kwong, PD; Mascola, JR; Haynes, BF. Co-evolution of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody and founder virus. Nature. 2013;496:469-476.  Abstract
  • Liao, HX; Tsao, CY; Alam, SM; Muldoon, M; Vandergrift, N; Ma, BJ; Lu, X; Sutherland, LL; Scearce, RM; Bowman, C; Parks, R; Chen, H; Blinn, JH; Lapedes, A; Watson, S; Xia, SM; Foulger, A; Hahn, BH; Shaw, GM; Swanstrom, R; Montefiori, DC; Gao, F; Haynes, BF; Korber, B. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of transmitted/founder, consensus, and chronic envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Journal of virology. 2013;87:4185-4201.  Abstract
  • Liu, MKP; Hawkins, N; Ritchie, AJ; Ganusov, VV; Whale, V; Brackenridge, S; Li, H; Pavlicek, JW; Cai, F; Rose-Abrahams, M; Treurnicht, F; Hraber, P; Riou, C; Gray, C; Ferrari, G; Tanner, R; Ping, L-H; Anderson, JA; Swanstrom, R; Chavi, CB; Cohen, M; Karim, SSA; Haynes, B; Borrow, P; Perelson, AS; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Williamson, C; Korber, BT; Gao, F; Self, S; McMichael, A; Goonetilleke, N. Vertical T cell immunodominance and epitope entropy determine HIV-1 escape. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2013;123:380-393.  Abstract
  • Ma, J; Zhang, Y; Chen, X; Jin, Y; Chen, D; Wu, Y; Cui, J; Wang, H; Liu, J; Li, N; Gao, F. Association of Preexisting Drug-Resistance Mutations and Treatment Failure in Hepatitis B Patients. PloS one. 2013;8.  Abstract
  • Parrish, NF; Gao, F; Li, H; Giorgi, EE; Barbian, HJ; Parrish, EH; Zajic, L; Iyer, SS; Decker, JM; Kumar, A; Hora, B; Berg, A; Cai, F; Hopper, J; Denny, TN; Ding, H; Ochsenbauer, C; Kappes, JC; Galimidi, RP; Jr, WAP; Bjorkman, PJ; Wilen, CB; Doms, RW; O'Brien, M; Bhardwaj, N; Borrow, P; Haynes, BF; Muldoon, M; Theiler, JP; Korber, B; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH. Phenotypic properties of transmitted founder HIV-1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 2013;110:6626-6633.  Abstract
  • Permar, SR; Salazar, MG; Gao, F; Cai, F; Learn, GH; Kalilani, L; Hahn, BH; Shaw, GM; Salazar-Gonzalez, JF. Clonal amplification and maternal-infant transmission of nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 variants in breast milk following single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis. Retrovirology. 2013;10:88.  Abstract
  • Ping, L-H; Joseph, SB; Anderson, JA; Abrahams, M-R; Salazar-Gonzalez, JF; Kincer, LP; Treurnicht, FK; Arney, L; Ojeda, S; Zhang, M; Keys, J; Potter, EL; Chu, H; Moore, P; Salazar, MG; Iyer, S; Jabara, C; Kirchherr, J; Mapanje, C; Ngandu, N; Seoighe, C; Hoffman, I; Gao, F; Tang, Y; Labranche, C; Lee, B; Saville, A; Vermeulen, M; Fiscus, S; Morris, L; Karim, SA; Haynes, BF; Shaw, GM; Korber, BT; Hahn, BH; Cohen, MS; Montefiori, D; Williamson, C; Swanstrom, R; Team, CAPRISA0AIS; Immunology, CHIV-AIDSV. Comparison of Viral Env Proteins from Acute and Chronic Infections with Subtype C Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Identifies Differences in Glycosylation and CCR5 Utilization and Suggests a New Strategy for Immunogen Design. Journal of virology. 2013;87:7218-7233.  Abstract
  • Zhang, G; Cai, F; Zhou, Z; DeVos, J; Wagar, N; Diallo, K; Zulu, I; Wadonda-Kabondo, N; Stringer, JSA; Weidle, PJ; Ndongmo, CB; Sikazwe, I; Sarr, A; Kagoli, M; Nkengasong, J; Gao, F; Yang, C. Simultaneous detection of major drug resistance mutations in the protease and reverse transcriptase genes for HIV-1 subtype C by use of a multiplex allele-specific assay. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2013;51:3666-3674.  Abstract
  • Zhang, R; Moody, M; Alam, M; Yu, J; Santra, S; Kelsoe, G; Sekaran, S; Bhaskarabhatla, R; Wang, M; Gurley, T; Allen, A; Armand, L; Marshall, D; Whitesides, J; Sutherland, L; Scearce, R; Foulger, A; Cooper, M; Pritchett, J; Hogan, A; De, R; Stolarchuk, C; Solomom, E; Friberg, E; Yang, Y; Gao, F; Schmitz, J; Kepler, T; Haynes, B; Liao, H. Isolation of mAbs from Sorted Single B Cells by RT/PCR for Analysis of B Cell Responses to HIV-1 MPER Epitope in Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. A30-A30.  
  • Bar, KJ; Tsao, CY; Iyer, SS; Decker, JM; Yang, Y; Bonsignori, M; Chen, X; Hwang, KK; Montefiori, DC; Liao, HX; Hraber, P; Fischer, W; Li, H; Wang, S; Sterrett, S; Keele, BF; Ganusov, VV; Perelson, AS; Korber, BT; Georgiev, I; McLellan, JS; Pavlicek, JW; Gao, F; Haynes, BF; Hahn, BH; Kwong, PD; Shaw, GM. Early low-titer neutralizing antibodies impede HIV-1 replication and select for virus escape. PLoS pathogens. 2012;8:e1002721.  Abstract
  • Fouda, GG; Mahlokozera, T; Rizzolo, K; Salazar-Gonzalez, J; Salazar, M; Learn, G; Barotra, S; Sekaran, M; Russell, E; Jaeger, F; Cai, F; Gao, F; Hahn, B; Swanstrom, R; Meshnick, S; Mwapasa, V; Kalilani, L; Fiscus, S; Montefiori, D; Haynes, B; Kwiek, J; Alam, M; Permar, S. Postnatally-transmitted HIV-1 variants are efficient at dendritic cell trans-infection and sensitive to autologous and heterologous neutralization. Retrovirology. 2012;9.  
  • Parrish, NF; Wilen, CB; Banks, LB; Iyer, SS; Pfaff, JM; Salazar-Gonzalez, JF; Salazar, MG; Decker, JM; Parrish, EH; Berg, A; Hopper, J; Hora, B; Kumar, A; Mahlokozera, T; Yuan, S; Coleman, C; Vermeulen, M; Ding, H; Ochsenbauer, C; Tilton, JC; Permar, SR; Kappes, JC; Betts, MR; Busch, MP; Gao, F; Montefiori, D; Haynes, BF; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Doms, RW. Transmitted/founder and chronic subtype C HIV-1 use CD4 and CCR5 receptors with equal efficiency and are not inhibited by blocking the integrin ¿4ß7. PLoS pathogens. 2012;8:e1002686.  Abstract
  • Song, H; Pavlicek, JW; Cai, F; Bhattacharya, T; Li, H; Iyer, SS; Bar, KJ; Decker, JM; Goonetilleke, N; Liu, MK; Berg, A; Hora, B; Drinker, MS; Eudailey, J; Pickeral, J; Moody, MA; Ferrari, G; McMichael, A; Perelson, AS; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Haynes, BF; Gao, F. Impact of immune escape mutations on HIV-1 fitness in the context of the cognate transmitted/founder genome. Retrovirology. 2012;9:89.  Abstract
  • Song, H; Ren, F; Li, J; Shi, S; Yan, L; Gao, F; Li, K; Zhuang, H. A laboratory-adapted HCV JFH-1 strain is sensitive to neutralization and can gradually escape under the selection pressure of neutralizing human plasma. Virus Research. 2012;169:154-161.  Abstract
  • Gnanakaran, S; Bhattacharya, T; Daniels, M; Keele, BF; Hraber, PT; Lapedes, AS; Shen, T; Gaschen, B; Krishnamoorthy, M; Li, H; Decker, JM; Salazar-Gonzalez, JF; Wang, S; Jiang, C; Gao, F; Swanstrom, R; Anderson, JA; Ping, LH; Cohen, MS; Markowitz, M; Goepfert, PA; Saag, MS; Eron, JJ; Hicks, CB; Blattner, WA; Tomaras, GD; Asmal, M; Letvin, NL; Gilbert, PB; Decamp, AC; Magaret, CA; Schief, WR; Ban, YE; Zhang, M; Soderberg, KA; Sodroski, JG; Haynes, BF; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Korber, B. Recurrent signature patterns in HIV-1 B clade envelope glycoproteins associated with either early or chronic infections. PLoS pathogens. 2011;7:e1002209.  Abstract
  • Jiang, C; Parrish, NF; Wilen, CB; Li, H; Chen, Y; Pavlicek, JW; Berg, A; Lu, X; Song, H; Tilton, JC; Pfaff, JM; Henning, EA; Decker, JM; Moody, MA; Drinker, MS; Schutte, R; Freel, S; Tomaras, GD; Nedellec, R; Mosier, DE; Haynes, BF; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Doms, RW; Gao, F. Primary infection by a human immunodeficiency virus with atypical coreceptor tropism. Journal of virology. 2011;85:10669-10681.  Abstract
  • Kirchherr, JL; Hamilton, J; Lu, X; Gnanakaran, S; Muldoon, M; Daniels, M; Kasongo, W; Chalwe, V; Mulenga, C; Mwananyanda, L; Musonda, RM; Yuan, X; Montefiori, DC; Korber, BT; Haynes, BF; Gao, F. Identification of amino acid substitutions associated with neutralization phenotype in the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 subtype C gp120. Virology. 2011;409:163-174.  Abstract
  • Liao, HX; Chen, X; Munshaw, S; Zhang, R; Marshall, DJ; Vandergrift, N; Whitesides, JF; Lu, X; Yu, JS; Hwang, KK; Gao, F; Markowitz, M; Heath, SL; Bar, KJ; Goepfert, PA; Montefiori, DC; Shaw, GC; Alam, SM; Margolis, DM; Denny, TN; Boyd, SD; Marshal, E; Egholm, M; Simen, BB; Hanczaruk, B; Fire, AZ; Voss, G; Kelsoe, G; Tomaras, GD; Moody, MA; Kepler, TB; Haynes, BF. Initial antibodies binding to HIV-1 gp41 in acutely infected subjects are polyreactive and highly mutated. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2011;208:2237-2249.  Abstract
  • Liu, J; Chen, X; Xie, Q; Zhang, W; Wei, L; Shen, T; Xu, Q; Zhuang, H; Gao, F; Lu, F. Drug resistance and HCV coinfection in former blood donors infected with HIV type 1 in China. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2011;27:925-930.  Abstract
  • Liu, J; Miller, MD; Danovich, RM; Vandergrift, N; Cai, F; Hicks, CB; Hazuda, DJ; Gao, F. Analysis of low-frequency mutations associated with drug resistance to raltegravir before antiretroviral treatment. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2011;55:1114-1119.  Abstract
  • Liu, P; Overman, RG; Yates, NL; Alam, SM; Vandergrift, N; Chen, Y; Graw, F; Freel, SA; Kappes, JC; Ochsenbauer, C; Montefiori, DC; Gao, F; Perelson, AS; Cohen, MS; Haynes, BF; Tomaras, GD. Dynamic antibody specificities and virion concentrations in circulating immune complexes in acute to chronic HIV-1 infection. Journal of virology. 2011;85:11196-11207.  Abstract
  • Tomaras, GD; Binley, JM; Gray, ES; Crooks, ET; Osawa, K; Moore, PL; Tumba, N; Tong, T; Shen, X; Yates, NL; Decker, J; Wibmer, CK; Gao, F; Alam, SM; Easterbrook, P; Abdool Karim, S; Kamanga, G; Crump, JA; Cohen, M; Shaw, GM; Mascola, JR; Haynes, BF; Montefiori, DC; Morris, L. Polyclonal B cell responses to conserved neutralization epitopes in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals. Journal of virology. 2011;85:11502-11519.  Abstract
  • Wang, D; Hicks, CB; Goswami, ND; Tafoya, E; Ribeiro, RM; Cai, F; Perelson, AS; Gao, F. Evolution of drug-resistant viral populations during interruption of antiretroviral therapy. Journal of virology. 2011;85:6403-6415.  Abstract